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written expressions 3rd year class

تجميعية هائلة من التعابير الكتابية باللغة الفرنسية للسنة الثالثة ثانوي تساعد في التحضير الجيد لشهادة البكالوريا Topic01 Modern civilization has kept changing at a fast pace. Discuss. Typical Essay: A



written expressions 3rd year class


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  1. #1

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    افتراضي written expressions 3rd year class

     
    تجميعية هائلة من التعابير الكتابية باللغة الفرنسية للسنة الثالثة ثانوي تساعد في التحضير الجيد لشهادة البكالوريا
    Topic01

    Modern civilization has kept changing at a fast pace. Discuss.
    Typical Essay:
    A century ago, people were able to live in better conditions than their parents thanks to the
    progress made in science and technology. But in practice, the outcome of this progress was
    slow to materialise. For instance, most people still used to travel long distances on foot or by
    stage coach. And as mechanization was not introduced significantly in daily activities,
    household chores still had to be done manually, and were therefore time consuming.

    On the other hand, community life was still an asset for social cohesion, since people had
    more opportunities to meet and interact. So they were able to chat with neighbours at shops or
    in clubs and have a cup of coffee with friends or relatives and tell stories and jokes. Likewise,
    family visits were frequent and kept the folklore alive, with the grandparents who used to tell
    traditional tales or sing lullabies or folk songs to their grandchildren. Unfortunately, with the
    development of audiovisual means such as the cinema, radio, television and then personal
    appliances like the computer, CD-ROMs and DVDs, the chances of socialization are
    dwindling and the lack of interaction between people may increase stress, loneliness and



    anxiety.
    Could we then complain that we are missing out on some ingredients in life which used to
    make our great grandparents happier? This is probably so, since closer contacts among
    neighbours, friends and families had to be beneficial for communal harmony. However,
    scientific progress in all fields, particularly in medicine, modes of transportation and
    communication, and agribusiness can only show that our lives are today quite fulfilling and ,
    if anything, more comfortable than a century ago.

    written expressions 3rd year class


  2. #2

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    كن جميلا ترى الوجود جميلا

    افتراضي رد: written expressions 3rd year class

    Algeria was the cradle of many ancient civilizations. Discuss.
    Typical Essay:
    Algeria is a huge country in Northern Africa. It covers 920,000 square miles (2,380,000 sq.
    km), making it more than three times the size of Texas, and the 11th largest nation on Earth. It
    shares borders with Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Tunisia, and Western Sahara,
    and has coastline on the Mediterranean.
    People have been living in the region that is now Algeria, and the surrounding Maghreb, for
    more than 200,000 years. The first civilizations sprang up between 4000 and 8000 years ago,
    eventually forming a cohesive population, usually referred to collective as the Berber culture.
    From about 900 BCE Algeria has been invaded repeatedly by various peoples, mostly from
    across the Mediterranean. First the Phoenicians came, trading along the coast and eventually
    establishing Carthage in nearby Tunisia and various outposts in Algeria. Then came the
    Romans, who conquered the Berbers more-or-less completely by 24 AD. By the 4th century
    Algeria had been converted to Christianity.
    Beginning in the 8th century Algeria, and the greater Maghreb, became a strategic target for
    the expanding Islamic world. By the end of the first decade of the 8th century the Umayyads
    had conquered all of North Africa, including Algeria. Over the next few centuries Algeria
    converted to Islam and was Arabized dramatically.
    In the 16th century Algeria came under the control of the Ottoman Empire, and became a
    center for Mediterranean piracy and privateering. It was in Algeria that the infamous pirate
    Red Beard (neé Barbarossa) eventually was based, as a provincial governor. During this
    period both Arabs and native Berbers saw their roles diminished, as Turkish became the
    national language and Turks became entrenched in most positions of power. Piracy continued
    to spread and become institutionalized in Algeria, as well as its neighbors, in a confederacy
    known as the Barbary States. In addition to capturing the wealth of European traders, these
    pirates also began capturing Christians as slaves, a turn of events that eventually led the
    young United States to enter into two of its earliest wars against the Barbary Coast.
    In the early 19th century Algeria was conquered by the French, who began to settle and
    develop the region. Although infrastructure developed under French control, to the majority
    of the Muslim inhabitants of Algeria, France was seen as a harsh colonial power. Resistance
    and open revolt continued throughout all of the French occupation, but it began to grow
    substantially and develop during the 1930s. Although relatively peaceful attempts were made
    for a Constitution and more equality in the mid-1940s, these were met with no support by the
    French government.
    By 1954 the situation had gotten bad enough that the citizenry revolted on a massive scale.
    The National Liberation Front was the main body of revolt, launching a full-scale civil war
    that would last for eight years. In that time nearly two million Algerians would die, and
    another two to three million were relocated. Independence was finally achieved in 1962, after
    one of the longest, bloodiest wars for independence in modern history

  3. #3

    تاريخ التسجيل
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    كن جميلا ترى الوجود جميلا

    افتراضي رد: written expressions 3rd year class

    Topic03:
    Write a composition on the scientific achievements of the ancient Greek civilization.
    Typical Essay:
    The Greeks were very interested in science as a way of organizing the world and making
    order out of chaos, and having power over some very powerful things like oceans and
    weather. From about 600 BC, a lot of Greek men spent time observing the planets and the sun
    and trying to figure out how astronomy worked. They must have gotten their first lessons
    from the Babylonians, who were very good at astronomy and also very interested in it.
    By the 400's BC, Pythagoras was interested in finding the patterns and rules in mathematics
    and music, and invented the idea of a mathematical proof. Although Greek women usually
    were not allowed to study science, Pythagoras did have some women among his students.
    Socrates, a little bit later, developed logical methods for deciding whether something was true
    or not.
    In the 300's BC, Aristotle and other philosophers at the Lyceum and the Academy in Athens
    worked on observing plants and animals, and organizing the different kinds of plants and
    animals into types. Again, this is a way of creating order out of chaos.
    After Aristotle, using his ideas and also ideas from Egypt and the Persians and Indians,
    Hippocrates and other Greek doctors wrote important medical texts that were used for
    hundreds of years.

  4. #4

    تاريخ التسجيل
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    هواياتي
    كرة القدم، الشطرنج، كتابة الخواطر، المطالعة
    شعاري
    كن جميلا ترى الوجود جميلا

    افتراضي رد: written expressions 3rd year class

    Topic04:
    Write a composition on the ancient Egyptian civilization.
    Typical Essay:
    Egypt is one of the most fertile areas of Africa, and one of the most fertile of the countries
    around the Mediterranean Sea. Because it is so fertile, people came to live in Egypt earlier
    than in most places, probably around 40,000 years ago. At first there were not very many
    people, but gradually Egypt became more crowded, so there was more need for a unified
    government. Around 3000 BC (5000 years ago), Egypt was first unified under one ruler, who
    was called the Pharaoh.
    The pharaoh’s government guaranteed both external and internal security to the people of
    Egypt. As a consequence, the Egyptians grew very proud of their country and became so fond
    of the pharaoh hat they worshipped him as a god-king. This national pride and identification
    with the pharaoh kept the unity of ancient Egypt and made its civilization prosper for many
    centuries
    From that time until around 525 BC, when Egypt was conquered by the Persians, Egypt's
    history is divided into six different time periods. These are called the Old Kingdom, the First
    Intermediate Period, the Middle Kingdom, the Second Intermediate Period, the New
    Kingdom, and the Third Intermediate Period.
    But the economy of ancient Egypt was ruined by all the resources that the pharaohs put into
    the building of pyramids and the gradual decline and fall of ancient Egyptian civilization

  5. #5

    تاريخ التسجيل
    Sep 2010
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    41,771
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    هواياتي
    كرة القدم، الشطرنج، كتابة الخواطر، المطالعة
    شعاري
    كن جميلا ترى الوجود جميلا

    افتراضي رد: written expressions 3rd year class

    Topic05:
    Write a composition on the scientific achievements of the ancient Egyptian civilization.
    Typical Essay:
    Egyptian scientists were generally most interested in observing nature and practical
    engineering, and they were very good at both of these things. The pyramids and temples, for
    example, show good knowledge of geometry and engineering. Egyptian engineers used the
    Pythagorean Theorem, thousands of years before Pythagoras was born.
    Because the Nile flood was so important to Egyptian farming, scientists also worked out
    good ways to measure how high the flood was going each year, and kept accurate records and
    good calendars. You can see here how the Egyptian wrote down numbers. The device they
    used to measure the height of the Nile flood is called a Nilometer.
    They also worked out good ways to move water from the Nile to outlying farms in the
    desert, using hand-powered irrigation pumps (shadufs) and canals.
    It may also have been Egyptian scientists who first figured out how to make yeast-rising
    bread

  6. #6

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    كن جميلا ترى الوجود جميلا

    افتراضي رد: written expressions 3rd year class

    Topic06:
    Write a composition on the achievements of the ancient Egyptian civilization in architecture.
    Typical Essay:
    People tend to think that Egyptian building styles stayed the same for the whole period of
    Egyptian history, from the beginning of the Old Kingdom to the end of the New Kingdom two
    thousand years later, but that's not true. The Egyptians built different kinds of buildings at
    different times, just like any other group of people.
    In the early part of the Old Kingdom, the Egyptians built mainly mastabas, a kind of tomb
    with a flat roof like a house. Then throughout most of the Old Kingdom, the Egyptians built
    the pyramid tombs which are now so famous. Of course they also built smaller buildings like
    houses and butcher shops.
    In the Middle Kingdom, the mastaba tomb came back again, although in a more elaborate
    form for the Pharaohs. They didn't build any more pyramids. Then in the New Kingdom there
    was a lot of building that was not tombs: temples for the gods especially, but also palaces for
    the Pharaohs.

  7. #7

    تاريخ التسجيل
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    شعاري
    كن جميلا ترى الوجود جميلا

    افتراضي رد: written expressions 3rd year class

    Topic07:
    Write a composition on the ancient Sumerian civilization and its achievements.
    Typical Essay:
    The people who settled down and began to develop a civilization, in the land between the
    Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers , are known as the Sumerians. About a thousand years later,
    the Babylonians took over in the south, and the Assyrians took over in the north, but the
    Sumerian culture lived on.
    The Sumerian civilization probably began around 5000 BCE. In the beginning, they were an
    agricultural community. They grew crops and stored food for times of need.
    The ancient Sumerians were very smart. They invented, amongst other things, the wheel, the
    sailboat, and the first written language, frying pans, razors, cosmetic sets, shepherd’s pipes,
    harps, kilns to cook bricks and pottery, bronze hand tools like hammers and axes, the plow,
    the plow seeder, and the first superhero, Gilgamesh.
    They invented a system of mathematics based on the number 60. Today, we divide an hour
    into 60 minutes, and a minute into 60 seconds. That comes from the ancient Mesopotamians.
    Some Mesopotamian words are still in use today. Words like crocus, which is a flower, and
    saffron, which is a spice, are words borrowed from the ancient Mesopotamians.
    The ancient Mesopotamians created a government that was a combination of monarchy and
    democracy. Kings ruled the people. Elected officials who served in the Assembly also ruled
    the people. Even kings had to ask the Assembly for permission to do certain things.
    Law held a special place in their civilization. In Babylonian times, laws were actually
    written down. But there were always laws. The laws clearly said how you had to behave and
    what your punishment would be if you did not behave correctly. And the laws that were later
    written down, for the most part, were laws created by the ancient Sumerians.
    Ancient Sumer was a bustling place of three or four hundred people. The ancient Sumerians
    built many cities along the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers. Archaeologists believe that their
    largest city, the city of Ur, had a population of around 24,000 residents!

  8. #8

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    شعاري
    كن جميلا ترى الوجود جميلا

    افتراضي رد: written expressions 3rd year class

    Topic08:
    Write a composition on the ancient Phoenician civilization.
    Typical Essay:
    Another great race of people descended from the Babylonian or Semitic stock were the
    Phoenicians. They inherited the intellectual and adventurous side of Babylonian life, and
    through them the use of the alphabet, or written language, was spread abroad over all the
    world.
    The Phoenicians were earth's first-known sailors and explorers. In tiny barks, such as we of
    today would think scarcely safe for navigating a river, they coasted the entire Mediterranean
    Sea and even ventured far along the shores of the tempestuous Atlantic. They went not as
    traders in the ordinary sense, but as bold adventurers, eager to see new things, resolute to
    confront and conquer whatever sudden, unknown danger leaped upon them.
    Their home lay along the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, adjoining Palestine, the home
    of the Hebrews. There they built mighty cities--Tyre, Sidon, Byblos, celebrated in song and
    story, the richest, most strongly guarded towns of their day. From these, the daring little ships
    sped forth ready to traffic or to plunder--for the Phoenicians were ever pirates where piracy
    seemed most profitable--ready to turn miners and dig in the tin mines of England, or become
    herders and raise flocks in the fertile valleys of Spain. They were, as the Greeks called them, a
    "red people," ruddy of face and probably of hair. The whole world knew and liked and feared
    these red Phoenicians, these first ready-witted searchers of the globe.

  9. #9

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    شعاري
    كن جميلا ترى الوجود جميلا

    افتراضي رد: written expressions 3rd year class

    Topic09:
    Write a composition on the achievements of the ancient Indus valley civilization in
    architecture and art.
    Typical Essay:
    The earliest big buildings in India were built by the Harappan people in the Indus River
    valley, about 2500 BC. The Harappan buildings included high brick walls around their cities
    to keep out enemies. Most of the buildings were ordinary houses, with rooms arranged around
    a small courtyard. Probably some families owned a whole house (and lived in it with their
    slaves), while others rented only one room in a house, and the whole family lived together in
    the one room. The rulers built bigger buildings, like this public bathing house and a town
    warehouse for storing wheat and barley, also out of mud-brick and baked brick. Like the
    houses, these bigger buildings were square or rectangular, with small courtyards in the
    middle. They used arches, but, like the Sumerians and the Egyptians, they only used them
    underground, as drains or foundations for buildings.
    The major themes of Indian art seem to begin emerging as early as the Harappan period,
    about 2500 BC. Although we're still not sure, some Harappan images look like later images of
    Vishnu and Shiva, and the tradition may start this early. With the arrival of the IndoEuropeans
    (or Aryans) around 1500 BC, came new artistic ideas.
    Around 500 BC, the conversion to Buddhism of a large part of the population of India
    brought with it some new artistic themes. But at first nobody made images of the Buddha -
    only stupas (STOO-pahs), symbolic representations that didn't look like a person.
    Then the conquests of Alexander the Great, in the 320's BC, also had an important impact on
    Indian art. Alexander left colonies of Greek veteran soldiers in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and
    these soldiers attracted Greek sculptors (maybe some of the soldiers were sculptors). Their
    Greek-style carvings attracted attention in India - the first life-size stone statues in India date
    to the 200's BC, just after Alexander. During the Guptan period, about 500 AD, the great
    cave temples of Ajanta and Ellora were carved. Scenes from the life of the Buddha became
    popular, and statues of the Buddha.
    Finally, the arrival of the Islamic faith and Islamic conquerors about 1000 AD brought
    iconoclasm to India, and a love of varied and complex patterning derived from Arabic and
    Persian models. This affected even Hindu artists who had not converted to Islam. Small
    Persian-style miniature paintings also became popular.

  10. #10

    تاريخ التسجيل
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    شعاري
    كن جميلا ترى الوجود جميلا

    افتراضي رد: written expressions 3rd year class

    Topic10:
    Write a composition on the scientific achievements of the ancient Indus valley civilization?
    Typical Essay:
    From the time of the Harappans to the time of the Islamic conquests, Indian scientists and
    mathematicians were leaders in many different fields. They especially stood out in
    mathematics and engineering.
    The Harappans in 2500 BC had a sewage system at their city of Mohenjo-Daro, and carefully
    laid out, straight streets. So even though we can't read their writing, we know that the
    Harappans understood a lot of geometry.
    A severe climate change halted development at Harappa around 2000 BC. The Aryan
    invasion of 1500 BC also seems to have stopped scientific advances for a while, but it did
    bring military advances to India in the form of horse-drawn war chariots. Around 800 BC,
    when the Aryans in northern India learned to smelt iron from the Assyrians in West Asia, this
    gave them another military advantage.
    Around 500 BC, thanks to Persian influence, the city of Taxila (in modern Pakistan) became
    a great scientific center. Atreya, a great botanist (plant specialist) and doctor, was working at
    Taxila about this time. Around the 300's BC, Indian farmers seem to have been using water
    wheels to lift water for irrigation - the earliest water wheels in the world.
    By 250 or 200 BC, under Mauryan rule, Indian scientists were the first in the world to be
    smelting iron with carbon to make steel.
    In the 600's AD, Indian mathematicians may have been responsible for inventing the numeral
    zero, and the decimal (or place) system (or it is possible that they got this idea from Chinese
    mathematicians). This made it a lot easier to add and multiply than it had been before. Indian
    mathematical ideas soon spread to West Asia and from there to Africa and Europe.
    Indian advances in iron-working led to some new ideas in the 1000's and 1100's AD. First,
    Indian architects were the first to use iron beams to replace wooden beams for building big
    temples. Second, Indian blacksmiths discovered a kind of iron that made a very strong and
    flexible kind of steel, called wootz steel.

 

 
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  1. written expression 1AS
    بواسطة الافق الجميل في المنتدى المواد الأدبية و اللغات للسنة الاولى ثانوي
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  2. Written Expressions 3rd year
    بواسطة الافق الجميل في المنتدى اللغة الانجليزية 3AS
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