Grammar - WORDS

.Words are composed of sounds or phonemes to which meaning is attached
.The range of human sounds is codified in the International Phonetic Alphabet
.a. Some symbols are similar to the alphabet; some appear to be strange squiggles
b. One can learn the symbols and approximate a given sound, but variances in stress and pause
.will not yield a fluent rendering of a language
.Sounds in predictable patterns become words
.Meaning is attached by users and listeners of a particular language
,Combinations of sounds which appear at the beginning and/or end of words to alter meanings
.indicate func-tions, and to signal particular use in a constra-tion
.Suffix -s or -es are plural when attached to a noun and singular when attached to a verb
.a. -ly signals an adverb or modifier
.b. -er signals comparative degree of adjective
.c. -est signals superlative degree of adjective
.d. -ed frequently signals past tense of a verb
.A, an, or the are noun marker that precede the noun
.Auxiliary verbs can, may, be, do, plus a verb, will always mark a verb
.Subordinate conjunctions after, although, as, because, if, mark a dependent clause

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